Napoleonic Wars: Battle of Marengo 1800 DOCUMENTARY

Napoleonic Wars: Battle of Marengo 1800 DOCUMENTARY


I have fought sixty battles, and I have learned nothing which I did not know at the beginning. Look at Caesar. He fought the first like the last. Violent changes in the course of human history always bring the most talented military leaders to the forefront and the French Revolution of 1789 was no different. Among the generals who stepped up was Napoleon Bonaparte and his genius dominated two decades of all-out conflict in Europe. This is our first video on the Napoleonic Wars, and we are going to start with the Battle of Marengo. The French Revolution of 1789 was a paradigm-shifting event that put all the monarchies of Europe at risk. As French King Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette became the prisoners of the revolutionaries, monarchs around Europe got even more worried. The brother of the queen, Archduke of Austria and Holy Roman Emperor Leopold II and the king of Prussia Frederick William II, threatened France with war if anything happened to Louis and Mary Antoinette. The new French government did not take it well and declared war on Austria in 1792. The Prussians declared war in response and soon after the Allies invaded France. Despite the fact that the revolution had weakened their army, the French managed to stop the invaders near Valmy and even took some lands in Germany and Italy. The French king and queen were executed the very next year and Spain, Naples, the Netherlands, Britain and Portugal joined Austria and Prussia to form what would later be known as the First Coalition. Still in 1793 and 1794 France, which was a republic now, was able to win multiple battles on all fronts and even take control of modern-day Belgium. In 1795, the French invaded the Low Countries, established the puppet Batavian Republic and agreed a separate peace with Prussia. The Coalition attempted to overthrow the Republic by supporting dissent in Paris, but the military garrison led by young Napoleon Bonaparte stopped the insurgency and helped install a new government, the Directory. France was now on the offensive. They invaded Germany and Italy and although the German campaign ended in defeat, in Italy the newly promoted Bonaparte won against Austrian and Sardinian armies forcing the latter to sign a treaty and taking control of northern Italy. Austria had to sue for peace and ceded Belgium, the Rhineland and Northern Italy to France. That was the end of the War of the First Coalition and Napoleon returns to Paris as a hero. Only Britain stayed at war and Napoleon started a new campaign against them in Egypt in 1798. He managed to take control of Malta and Egypt itself, but was stopped by the united Ottoman and British forces. When his navy was defeated near Aboukir, Napoleon lost the initiative. Back in Europe, Britain convinced Austria, Russia and Naples to form the Second Coalition. In 1799, Britain invaded the Netherlands while Russian general Suvorov moved into Italy. The British were defeated, but the Austro-Russian army managed to drive the French out of Italy only to be stopped in Switzerland. Suvorov was pushed out of Italy. The overall situation for France left much to be desired as the army was in bad shape and the Directory lacked will and authority. Napoleon, when informed of the situation, abandoned his army in Egypt and returned to France in October. Soon he led a successful military coup that overthrew the Directory, replacing it with a Consulate. Bonaparte was appointed as the First Consul. In a short time, he was able to raise an army of 200,000. In 1800, a small portion of this force was deployed in Belgium to defend against a possible incursion, while Moreau was sent to Germany and Masséna to Northern Italy. The Austrians had two armies in the theater. 120,000 soldiers were under Kray in Germany and a 100,000-strong force was commanded by Melas in Italy. Masséna and his 40,000 were ordered to defend the southern borders of France against Melas. Napoleon tried to fool enemy spies by conducting an assembly in Dijon. He deliberately started training the oldest and youngest recruits there. Enemy agents informed their governments and that gave Napoleon an opportunity to surprise the Austrians by moving to Geneva with smaller units organized in other French cities. Still, Coalition leaders were sure that he would attack in Germany with his 60,000 men. Instead Napoleon ordered Moreau to cross the Rhine and engage Kray. He was planning something unexpected. Meanwhile, Masséna was attacked by the Austrians in April and had to retreat slowly towards the coast. He was besieged in Genoa by Melas and the British fleet but his stalwart defense of the city allowed Napoleon to move his forces to Italy. Napoleon repeated the maneuver of Hannibal against the Romans crossing the Alps via the San Bernardino pass. This surprised the Austrians and made them scramble to defend themselves. Melas was sure that Napoleon would move towards Genoa in order to raise the siege, so he sent a contingent to stop them at well-fortified Turin. However, the French leader outplayed his opponent once again and took Milan on the 2nd of June. Austrian supply lines were effectively cut and their capital Vienna itself was now in imminent danger. Melas had no other choice but to move against Napoleon, and he was forced to allow Masséna’s troops to leave Genoa. Melas needed to break through the French forces in order to restore his lines of communication. He sent some of his troops to the north to close off the Po River, but French troops managed to cross it all the same. Melas still had a chance to win the campaign as Napoleon was dividing his forces into smaller groups to blockade as many roads as possible. Melas needed to win a decisive battle quickly. Sources claim that while planning this campaign a few months ago, Napoleon pointed to Marengo on the map and predicted that the fight would take place there. Indeed, the two armies met at Marengo on the 14th of June. Melas had more than 23,000 infantrymen, 8,000 cavalry and 100 cannons while Napoleon commanded only 23,000 infantrymen and 20 cannons as more than half of his army was blocking passages elsewhere. The Austrian army started crossing the Bormida River at 8 o’clock. Seemingly, Napoleon did not expect Melas to be here with his full force. The initial Austrian attack was concentrated against the division of French general Perrin but despite outnumbering the enemy, the Austrians had a hard time breaking through due to the terrain and enemy resistance. Melas was able to move more troops to the beachhead and now attacked Perrin both head-on and from the flanks. By 10 o’clock, the French division was outflanked from the right side but soon, a second French division under general Lannes was nearby and was able to push the enemy back. However, Melas now had more troops across the river and so tried to encircle Lannes. Napoleon realized that he was fighting the main Austrian force and sent messengers to generals Desaix and Boudet who commanded the only units in reinforcement range. Melas was joined by general Ott who was now threatening the French right flank. Lannes and Perrin started a slow retreat supported by the newly arrived cavalry of Kellerman and Champeaux. French lines were on the brink when Napoleon arrived with his Consular Guard. This guard had a limited number of troops, but Napoleon used them to fill the gaps. Despite that, the French army was still under devastating artillery fire and was constantly harassed as it withdrew. To this day, historians are in awe of the fact that Napoleon and his officers were able to retreat in good order. The Austrian army was the only one left standing in the field. General Melas transferred command to general Zach and returned to his camp to send the news to Vienna. Unfortunately for the Austrians, their reconnaissance failed them. Zach allowed his troops some respite, planning to pursue Napoleon later. But during the wait, Desaix and Boudet arrived with 6,000 soldiers. The French reformed their lines and when Zach finally resumed the pursuit, he was met by cannon and canister shots. Desaix led his division forward and died during the assault but his troops still continued on. Along with the division of Boudet, they broke through the first line of the Austrian army. They were now facing fresh troops of Zach and the battle hung in the balance. However, at this point Napoleon proved his genius yet again and sent his remaining cavalry under Kellerman to attack the Austrian left. This attack proved decisive as Zach was captured and the leaderless Austrian army had no more will to resist. They returned to the positions held in the morning. That was the end of the Battle of Marengo. The French took Italy back and as Moreau defeated the Austrians at Hohenlinden, Vienna was under threat and the Austrians had to sue for peace. Britain continued fighting, but in 1802 finally signed a peace treaty favourable for the French. Nothing was stopping Napoleon from becoming Emperor. Thanks for watching our first video on the Napoleonic Wars. This series will hopefully continue if we see enough interest. We would like to express our gratitude to our Patreon supporters who make the creation of these videos possible. This video was narrated by me Officially Devin. Don’t forget to stop by my channel for some narrative Let’s Plays. This is the Kings and Generals channel we will catch you on the next one.

100 Comments

  1. Our new video covering one of the last Crusades and the battle of Nicopolis was just released: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v_0-Vc7uA4g

  2. Great presentation. Would it be possible to have presentations too about the Battles of Three Kingdoms (China)? Thanks. 🙂

  3. I am sorry to see that you didn't mention what Napoleon had for dinner following the battle of Marengo. It is now a classic.

  4. Napoleon was a very calm man. You can see the difference in their tactics, Napoleon saw the picture outside of the battle, while the enemies see openings.

  5. Just so you know, even though Napoleon was made First Consul of France just a Year before this. This is not part of the Napoleonic wars because that began in 1803. Now this is during the French Revolutionary Wars (c. 1792 – 1802) Or to be More Exact, the War of the Second Coalition (c. 1798 – 1802).

  6. Part of the Holy Roman Empire and Prussia on the west end are now part of Germany. The east part of Prussia is now part of Poland. The east portions of the Holy Roman Empire are now portions of Eastern Europe like Czech Republic, Romania, Hungary and Bulgaria.

  7. I don't see Napoleon genius on the battlefield. He fight no more no less standard. He is even not all that strategically, because he was surprised by the main Austrian army at Morengo. His other generals did relatively as good. He was alright strategist, no worse than anyone, according to this presentation. The only thing I see is that he was inspirational, and his troops didn't rout in the face of defeat.

  8. This was the first and last time that the name of France appeared
    .
    The French were cowards and failed in everything. They took advantage of the period of peace in Europe and then attacked the kingdoms but in the end they were crushed and thrown into the dustbin of history

  9. Hey there.
    I just submitted a persian subtitle for this video yesterday.
    But it hasn't been published yet.
    Anybody know whats the problem?

  10. i don't think he had much of French accent. He was not French but Sardinian. anyways very well done.

  11. Next time you make a French surrender meme, remember.

    If Napoléon heard you say that, he'd make you his client state.

  12. Napoleon was a brilliant military commander. Our generals on both sides of our civil war studied his tactics at West Point and I’m pretty sure they are still being taught today.

  13. Please stop having moving clouds over your maps. I love your channel. I am visually impaired, and when those clouds are moving across the map, I really cannot see whats happening on the map. Thanks!

  14. France wins the first collation
    France wins the second collation
    France wins the third collation
    France wins the fourth collation
    France wins the fifth collation
    France losses the sixth collation
    France wins the Crimean war
    France loses the Franco Prussian war
    France wins wins WW1
    France looses WW2
    France joins NATO and the European Union and is one of the most powerful countries in the world.

    People in 2019 – The French do nothing but dink wine and surrender.

  15. Well he abandon his in egypt army but his army was escorted by the british back to france safely i think

  16. Today no one can be like napoleon in the modern world… he will surely get killed by just attempting to invade a single city… wahahhaha

  17. The hangging of queen Marie Antoinete was the cause of all these wars . Why did the french republican government need to be so blood thirsty

  18. Napoleon was an egotistical tyrant much over rated. his wars depopulated france and killed its best people. france has never recovered from napoleon.

  19. France did its best representation of the Roman lineage in one lifetime… King->Republic->Consular dictatorship->Empire

  20. Ok…..I'm fine with you saying these leaders had a talent for violence….but genius? FOH! A genius would have found a way to solve the reasons for war WITHOUT war

  21. That first quote… "I have fought sixty battles and I have learned nothing which I did not know at the beginning." begs a quote from Wellington, from after the Battle of Waterloo. "They came on in the same old way, and we stopped them in the same old way."

  22. " If you make a dog lead an army of lions. The lions will fight like dogs. But if you make a lion lead an army of dogs, the dogs will fight and die like a lion".
    Napoleon

  23. Massena actually had to surrender his army to the austrian siege forces due to thousands of casualties, civilian and millitary which came about from malnutrition and disease. Nearly 4,000 french were allowed to march back to france with their flags of honour, while another few thousand wounded and sick boarded ships of the royal navy to also return to France. Massena would be never really forgive Napoleon for choosing to take Milan instead of saving Genoa and its army and people. However, of course this did shock the austrians and indeed was not something they foresaw.

  24. Napoleon Bonaparte(Ναπολεων Καλομερος at Greek language)was GREEK from Oitylon(Mani)At Lakonia.Few people knows this thing.And has 5500 Lakonians as his Personal Guard.Napoleon learned spoken and wrote French at age of 12

  25. Your animation showing the dispositions of the French and Austrian armies at Marengo are criminally inaccurate and Moreau was not in command at Zurich, Massena was. Also Kellermans cavalry charge was on his own initiative and had nothing to do with Napoleon and was executed against the Austrian center, not the flank. Napoleon led his army over the Saint Bernard pass, not San Bernadino. A good video but full of stupid mistakes.

  26. Love how they say "Only Britain stayed out". Because of course Spain, Portugal, Russia, Sweden, Norway-Denmark and the Ottoman empire were involved in the 1st coalition

  27. I love these videos, I wish you guys would try more longer ones. Most of your stuff is better than anything out there and I love listening to them while I go about my day.

  28. Was this the battle when Napoleon informed one of his reinforcing general that they lost the battle and the general told him something like there is still enough time to win another battle?

  29. Hahaha, surprising the enemy after a retreat with fresh new reinforcements is not a military genious, if he fought like a man he could have won against the austrians, but not, he awaited reiforcements, fucing pussy napo

  30. Talk about bad maps. The Holy Roman Empire was not an actual country but a confederation of several countries. While Austria and its leaders, the Habsburgs, ruled the “empire” all of Austria wasn’t actually in the HRE. Only German Austria was there. Not Hungary, not Austrian Poland or the Balkans and definitely not Belgium. And Prussia, shown here as being separate from the HRE was not only IN the “empire” but its King was also the Great Elector of Brandenburg, one of the electors who determines who the Holy Roman Emperor was going to be. Shit map, mein friend.

  31. Why do these videos sound so different? This is my favorite history channel but these videos sound different? I have seen all these videos before many times over, something is off?

  32. Who came here from Waterloo 1970 after seeing Napoleon shouting "I lost the battle of Marengo at 5 o' clock but I won it back at SEVEN"

  33. Such a great leader. Yet stupid enough to invade Russia. Had he never done it, he might have governed much longer. Russia is too cold and too big territory, they just retreat, scorch land and wait for the winter to kill their enemy.

  34. Marengo County, Alabama was named in honor of the battle by French settlers when they established the towns of Arcola, and Demopolis along the Tombigbee river. The County is actually older than the State.

  35. Napoleon was soo lucky in this battle lol , it was too close of defeat for french , ; one mistake of not pursuing defeated french army cost Austrian general this battle .

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